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Seasons

As the earth revolves around the sun along an elliptic orbit, the distance between the earth and sun varies at different times of the year. Most of us believed that this causes inequalities in length of days and nights during different times of a year. Seasons and different temperature zones are also the result of the earths revolution. The above belief is not completely true because when earth is at a minimum distance from the sun, some part of earth experiences winter seasons. There fore the above consequences are due to tilting of earth axis. Sine the axis of earth is tilted, the Arctic regions receives sunlight only in June while the Antarctic receives only during December, other regions receives different amounts during the year this causes the seasons and variation in the length of days and nights. This model demonstrates the different seasons on earth. Here a globe with its axis tilted by 23 V-i is made to rotate and also revolve around a glowing bulb, in such a way that at particular position northern hemisphere is tilted maximum towards sun ( glowing bulb) and receives sun light up to 23° north of equator perpendicularly and tangently on southern hemi sphere causing summer for northern hemisphere and winter. For southern hemisphere ( Jun 22nd ). After completion of half of its revolution from its initial position southern hemisphere is tilted maximum towards sun (bulb) and receives sun light perpendicularly up to 23° south of the equator causing summer for southern hemisphere and northern hemi sphere receives sunlight tangently causing winter(December 22nd). At the above positions duration of day and night are maximum and minimum at different hemisphere. In between these two positions globe is tilted in such a way that sun rays falls perpendicularly on equator. At that time both hemisphere receive same amount of light and duration of day and nights are equal, (on march 21st and spet. 23rd) All the above consequences are clearly and effectively demonstrated by placing a small doll at different altitudes which cast shadow on globe, which shows how the falling of sun rays changes from month to month at different altitudes. This model also shows, how sun appears to move along ecliptic and cross celestial equator twice in a year. The points of vernal equinox and autumnal equinox and also reveals the meaning of summer solitice (Dashinayan) and winter solstice uttrayana) more precisely.
 
 

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